The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula. Soon after the death of the prophet Muhammad, there were military expeditions, called "futuhat," or literally "openings," into what is now Egypt and other parts of North Africa. In other parts of the world, Islam spread through trade and commerce.
The World Before the Prophet Muhammad
According to https://www.al-islam.org/, "The Arabs among whom the Prophet was born were fragmented into a number of heterogeneous tribes constantly engaged in internecine bloodshed. They had replaced Abraham's monotheism with the worship of idols, stars, angels and demons, turning the Ka'aba built for the One and Only Creator, into a pantheon of idols. Tribal rivalries and blood feuds, fuelled among them like the burning desert sands of Arabia."
On the fringes of Arabia where the desert gives way to the two superpowers of the age; the Persian and the Byzantine Empires.
- 7th century CE (23 AH – 81 AH)
- 8th century CE (81 AH – 184 AH)
- 9th century CE (184 AH – 288 AH)
- 10th century CE (288 AH – 391 AH)
- 11th century CE (391 AH – 494 AH)
- 12th century CE (494 AH – 597 AH)
- 13th century CE (597 AH – 700 AH)
- 14th century CE (700 AH – 803 AH)
Regional empires and dynasties (Ottoman Empire, Safavid Empire, Mughal Empire)
- 15th century CE (803 AH – 906 AH)
- 16th century CE (906 AH – 1009 AH)
- 17th century CE (1009 AH – 1112 AH)
- 18th century Ac (1112 AH – 1215 AH)
- 19th century Ac (1215 AH – 1318 AH)
The period of colonialism and postcolonial nation-states
- 20th century Ac (1318 AH – 1421 AH)
- 21st century Ac (1421 AH – present)